Coffee is a water-loving plant that grows well from May to November and is best planted during the rainy season. This is the time when coffee plants grow rapidly in size, develop buds and branches, and produce seeds. However, the rainy season is also when coffee plants are vulnerable to serious problems that reduce yields, such as pests, premature fruit shedding, fungus, leaf drop, and etc. If the farmer is unable to effectively address these issues, the coffee garden will suffer damage, produce a low yield, and fail to generate the desired profit. So, how do you overcome all of the aforementioned challenges without resorting to numerous complicated technical steps?

The garden must be properly ventilated in order to be pest-free.

Many people assume that Mr. Pham Huy Toan must have put a lot of effort into his green coffee garden in Loc Thang Town, Bao Lam District, Lam Dong Province, because it is packed with fruits. The truth, however, is quite the contrary. "Just do the correct and adequate easy procedures like pruning branches, weeding regularly, removing all the branches affected by pests can reduce a lot of pests and diseases," he said candidly. Pests, according to him, spread from one canopy to the next. If not properly pruned, it will quickly spread throughout the garden, particularly to the old branches, which are the most sensitive to pests and diseases and must be trimmed precisely and cleanly. Farmers tend to keep old branches because they do not want to throw away the fruits that ripen prematurely. However, having old branches contact the ground may cause fruits and branches to rot, allowing pests and fungi to thrive, resulting in the loss of large, healthy branches above and lowering garden yield. Pruning branches and clearing the garden aids coffee plants in increasing reserve branches for the next crop, reducing premature fruit shedding, and improving bean quality.

 Photo: Mr. Toan's coffee plantation is overflowing with coffee fruits thanks to the proper implementation of simple techniques.

Mr. Toan has disclosed a useful and effective secret for handling pest-infected coffee plants, and applied successfully to his coffee plantation. When pests attack coffee plants, the first step is to remove all infected branches to prevent the disease from spreading, followed by root treatment. Plants will grow healthily and be able to survive pests and fungi if the roots are healthy, he claimed. He uses pesticides and lime to kill insects and fungi. In addition, he also uses good fertilizers for roots and plants such as N46.Plus, N.Humate+TE. His liming technique is as simple as the usual technique, but it must be done consistently and without interruption. Only in that way will the roots be good, prevent pests, fungi and help the soil more durable.

Adjusting the size of coffee beans & seeds according to the N, P, K ratio

Everyone was surprised that Mr. Toan accomplished such good outcomes with simple secrets after conversing with him and visiting the coffee garden under his guidance. According to him, the farmer must have a thorough understanding of the plants, as well as the fertilization techniques used at each stage, in effort to enhance plants to bear fruit, produce fruit that is uniform, and contain a large number of beans. Mr. Toan uses manure mixed with nitrogen-rich NPK Ca Mau at the start of the rainy season to encourage rooted, budding, and maintaining good health for fruiting. NPK Ca Mau 20 - 20 - 15 is the best type of NPK for this stage. He checks the garden every day after fertilizing to quickly detect weak and stunted plants and adjust the amount of fertilizer as needed. Not only that, but Mr. Toan proactively seeks out new knowledge from PVCFC's technicians and immediately asks if there are any questions to make a suitable change. It's also worth noting that coffee plants' roots are at a depth of 0 - 20cm, therefore farmers should not apply fertilizer too deep or too shallow to prevent wasting fertilizer because the plants will not be able to absorb it. Lightly rake moist soil into the coffee plant holes, evenly distribute fertilizer, then cover it with soil and leaves.  

Mr. Toan continues to regulate the NPK ratio after the root and branch development stages so that the coffee plants produce large, round, and even fruits. Use NPK Ca Mau NPK, which contains higher phosphorus and potassium and reduced nitrogen (NPK Ca Mau 19-9-19 with Ca Mau Potassium). This adjustment aids in the concentration of nutrients for fruit development, with the amount of fertilizer varying every garden, but primarily based on the coffee yield to be gained in such garden.

Mr. Toan fertilizes coffee plants on a regular basis during both the rainy and dry seasons, according to the growth cycles of the plants. During the dry season, he watered and applies urea the plants' roots on a regular basis. He fertilizes with NPK mixed with potassium and N46 during the rainy season to promote in seed growth and the strength and health of the roots and branches. Mr. Toan's coffee garden is green and covered with premature fruits, big branches, and robust trees thanks to these easy techniques, many people would wish to have a garden like his garden.

Thanks to the proper four-stage fertilization, the rate of premature fruit shedding is minimal.

"At first, I had no experience and only fertilized based on my feelings, which resulted in a high rate of premature fruit shedding." That was attributable to my improper fertilization method and not knowing how to take care of plants in the rainy season. Fortunately, I happened to be aware of the program for trial use of PVCFC's products. I fertilize at the appropriate dose, at the right time, with the right type, and in the right way thanks to the expert supervision of engineers. My coffee garden was chosen as a trial garden as a result of my participation in the program, and the engineers meticulously analyzed the quality of the soil, plant varieties, and advised me on how to fertilize during the rainy season to lower the rate of premature fruit shedding. I believe that this crop will be extremely productive, the yield would exceed 6 tons/ha." Mr. Toan proudly boasted.

Many farmers still assume that "over-fertilization is better than under-fertilization" and do not understand how coffee plants grow, leading in fruits that shed heavily in the event of rain owing to excess nitrogen, resulting in low yield. Only increase nitrogen at the start of the rainy season and reduce nitrogen at the end of the rainy season, increase potassium and phosphorus in combination with proper spraying, apply in the correct proportion for full absorption, and assist premature fruits grow bigger and shed less.  

Mr. Toan is happy with the coffee garden's transformation throughout the rainy season, which includes reduced fruit shedding, pest-freeness, and fruit bearing. Following simple techniques, he claims, will provide excellent outcomes. Mr. Toan believes that the golden secrets of PVCFC will aid him in generating a high-yielding and profitable coffee crop.

Mr. Toan's coffee garden is pleased to have NPK Ca Mau as a companion product. Ca Mau NPK products, which come in a variety of N-P-K formulas, allow farmers to use throughout the plant's growth process, save fertilizers to the maximum, provide long-term soil fertility, and produce a range of highly productive crops for farmers around the country.